(1) How do I read the articles?

  • the most important section to read is the “morsel of evidence” at the beginning of the article
  • the second most important section is “Clinical relevance to primary health care” at the end of the article before the references

The “morsel of evidence”

Each article starts with the a brief summary, the “morsel of evidence”. This section is a brief summary of evidence from the article framed in terms of clinical relevance to primary health care. Articles that do not have a direct impact on clinical practice will be explicitly described as such. Cautions may be given in this section of problems of validity or unreliability of the evidence base. This section is designed to be read within 10-15 seconds.

The "Morsel of Evidence"

Article details

After the evidence based summary, there is a section describing the details the source article under the following sections:

Study design:

  • what type of study did the author’s perform?

Study aim:

  • what did the authors try to achieve?

Methods summary:

  • what did the authors plan to do?
  • did they actually do it?

Results summary:

  • what did the authors claim to find?
  • if there are misrepresented or misreported results, what did the authors actually find?

Study conclusions:

  • what did the study authors conclude?
  • note: this is the original conclusion of the study authors, not the conclusion of the Morsels of Evidence review


  • who was actually in the study?
  • note: this is particularly relevant when trying to apply research findings to the Australian primary health care setting

Article critique

Methodological weaknesses:

  • describes real and potential weaknesses in the study
  • problems with studies that may make it invalid often have little to do with the statistics
  • rather, it is the problems with study design, bias in the participants, inadequate study power, confounding factors, inappropriate  measures, and lack of generalisability

Methodological strengths:

  • describes strengths of the study; aspects of the study that improve the validity of the results demonstrated and the conclusions made

Biases and conflicts of interests:

  • declared conflicts of interests (e.g., funding by pharmaceutical companies)
  • any perceived or real undeclared conflicts of interests

Clinical relevance to primary health care

  • discussion on the findings of the research article and how it can be applied by Australian general practitioners in primary health care
  • narrative on the reliability of the findings in terms of the strengths and weaknesses of the findings
  • practical clinical suggestions in the light of the findings
  • note: this section can be considered an expanded and more detailed version of the necessarily brief “morsel of evidence”.


  • sources used in the article
  • the first reference is always the article being reviewed
  • additional references may or may not be used

(2) I am unfamiliar with research terminology! What do these words mean?

The articles on Morsels of Evidence have special pop-up links for research terminology that may be unfamiliar.  When theses are clicked, a brief summary will appear.

Pop-up summaries of research terms (P-value)

(3) How do I post comments in articles?


(4) How do I become a member of the Morsels of Evidence?

Becoming a member allows you to use a custom avatar image in your comments and avoids entering your details on each occasion.


(5) How do I print an article?


(6) How do I save a copy of the article?

The best way to do so is to save the article as a PDF file.


(7) How do I subscribe to the mailing list?


(8) How do I remove myself from the mailing list?


%d bloggers like this: